The Dead Sea
In 1947 a group of children stumbled
upon the first set of scrolls in a cave on the shores of the Dead
Sea. These scrolls were immediately identified as the work of a
very devout sect of the Jewish community that lived centuries before
the birth of Jesus (peace be upon him). Hershel Shanks says in his
book Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls: "Such was the discovery
of the Dead Sea Scrolls, manuscripts a thousand years older than
the oldest known Hebrew texts of the Bible, manuscripts many of
which were written a hundred years before the birth of Jesus and
at least one of which may have been written almost three hundred
years before the journey of Mary and Joseph to Bethleham."
(Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls, Hershel Shanks, pp. 7-8).
An immediate frantic search ensued
through the remaining caves in the region in order to find what
other ancient scrolls could be discovered therein. A small group
of "international" scholars in Israel were given exclusive
access to them and the rest of the world was all but totally barred
from gaining even the slightest glimpse of the texts (Professor
Eisenman observes that one of the major stumbling blocks for the
publication of the scrolls was that "in the first place, the
team was hardly international"). Professor Robert Eisenman
was one of the key players in the drama that finally lead to the
release of the scrolls. In his book The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered
we read: "In the spring of 1986, at the end of his stay in
Jerusalem, Professor Eisenman went with the British scholar, Philip
Davies of the University of Sheffield, to see one of the Israeli
officials responsible for this - an intermediary on behalf of the
Antiquities Department (now 'Authority') and the International Team
and the Scrolls Curator at Israel Museum. They were told in no uncertain
terms 'You will not see the Scrolls in your lifetimes'".
This stung them into action, and
as a result of this statement, a massive effort was launched and
five years later, through a whirlwind of media publicity, absolute
access to the scrolls was attained. Professor Eisenman eventually
received 1800 pictures of the previously unpublished scrolls. The
book goes on to describe how "Eisenman was preparing the Facsimile
Edition of all unpublished plates. This was scheduled to appear
the following spring through E. J. Brill in Leiden, Holland. Ten
days, however, before it's scheduled publication in April 1991,
after pressure was applied by the International Team, the publisher
inexplicably withdrew and Hershel Shanks (author of Biblical Archaeology
Review) and the Biblical Archaeology Society to their credit stepped
in to fill the breach". However, finally in September 1991,
the archives were officially opened and two months later the 2-volume
Facsimile Edition was published.
We have already read the words of
Mr Tom Harpur in the preface to his book: "The most significant
development since 1986 in this regard has been the discovery of
the title "Son of God" in one of the Qumran papyri (Dead
Sea Scrolls) used in relation to a person other than Jesus.....this
simply reinforces the argument made there that to be called the
Son of God in a Jewish setting in the first century is not by any
means the same as being identical with God Himself." For Christ's
Sake, pp. xii. So why don't we study these scrolls in a little more
detail and see what else we can learn?
The Dead Sea Scrolls consist of fragments
from many manuscripts, however, some of the most interesting among
them are the Pesher texts. The Pesher texts are strings of interpretations
of Biblical verses compiled by the most knowledgeable among the
Jews. The word itself is derived from the Hebrew root word p-sh-r,
which means, "to explain". The texts consist of Biblical
passages followed by the words pesher ha-davar "the interpretation
of the matter is", and then the interpretation itself.
The basis of all of these texts is
the notion that all of history is preordained by God. In other words,
God is not restricted to looking at matters as "past",
"present", or "future", rather, all of time
is an open book to God Indeed, this is the essence of how prophets
receive "prophesies", because God "sees" the
future. So, remembering that we are henceforth quoting from texts
that have been carbon dated at about 100 years or more before the
coming of Jesus (peace be upon him), and that this dating is confirmed
by literary analysis, and that the authors were a sect of very religious
and devout Jews, considering all of this let us see what they have
Those who have studies the scrolls
have noticed a common theme prevalent throughout these manuscripts,
that is, most of the pesher texts prophesise the coming of a "Teacher
of Righteousness" who will be sent by God to the Jews. This
"Teacher of Righteousness" will be opposed by the "Teacher
of Lies" and the "Wicked Priest". These scrolls also
predict the coming of two messiahs. These two messiahs are referred
to as a 1) priestly and a 2) temporal messiah. What we had here
was a society of very devout Jews who were convinced that the time
of the coming of the two messiahs was at hand, therefore, they set
about preparing for their advent by detaching themselves from the
mainstream society, and dedicating their lives to their worship
and the preparation for their imminent arrival.
In The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered,
by Robert Eisenman and Michael Wise, we read that the early scrolls
spoke of two messiahs, but that later on, the communities of the
Jews began to combine them into one messiah: "As we have suggested,
contrary to the well-known 'two-Messiah' theory of early Qumran
scholarship, these references to the 'Messiah of Aaron and Israel'
in the Damascus Document are singular not plural... and one possible
explanation for it is that it is evoking a Messiah with both priestly
and kingly implications, like the somewhat similar recitations of
Hebrews" (The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered, Robert Eisenman
and Michael Wise, p. 162).
"According to the dominant view
in the sectarian texts from Qumran, two messiahs were to lead the
congregation in the End of Days, one priestly, and the other lay"
(Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, pp.
The Jews had prophesies of two messiahs.
The first was best known to them for his "religious" or
"priestly" works which he would perform. The second was
best known to them for his "kingly" works; his bringing
of an epoch of peace.
These two prophesies refer to Jesus
(peace be upon him) and Muhammad . Jesus (peace be upon him) was
best know for his "priestly" works. However, he never
lead an army, and he never established a kingdom or a government.
Quite the opposite, he called to peace and submissiveness and to
leave the rule of the land to others (Matthew 22:21). He
told his followers that he yet had many things to teach them but
they could not bear them yet and that another would be coming after
him who would teach them the complete truth (John 16:7-14).
Muhammad too began his ministry preaching
submissiveness and passiveness. However, his ministry was nurtured
by God almighty to a point where it was able to defend itself and
establish justice in the earth and abolish evil. His followers fought
several wars in self defence and against injustice. The Islamic
empire finally stretched from China to Spain and even those who
did not follow Muhammad knew him well. However, what did they know
him for? They knew him for his "kingly" actions and not
for the "priestly" side of him that his followers knew.
against them until persecution is no more and religion is for God
alone. But if they desist then let there be no hostility except
whom We gave the Scripture recognise him Muhammad as they recognise
their sons. But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while
they know it"
Over time, the prophesies of the
Jews began to become a little blurred, and this in addition to the
continuous persecution of many nations towards the Jews eventually
lead to their blending of these prophesies into one single prophesy
and their aggrandizing of this one all-conquering wondrous event
that would finally relieve them of their persecution and pave the
way for them to march forth conquering all nations, and establishing
themselves as the protectors of the kingdom of God. For this reason,
when we read the Gospel of Barnabas, we find that when the Jews
ask Jesus (peace be upon him) whether he is "the messiah"
he replies that he is not "the messiah" that they are
"Think not that I am come to
send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For
I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter
against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law."
This is because he understood their
question. They were not asking him for his title, rather, they wanted
to know whether he was the one who would finally fulfil all of their
prophesies of leadership, power, and grandeur that they had been
waiting for for so many centuries. For this reason, he told them
that he was not "the messiah", but that "the Messiah"
they were waiting for would not come until later. He was referring
to the SECOND messiah in their prophesies. (The Jews had expectations
of three prophecies to be fulfilled.)
Lawrence Schiffman says regarding
Pesher Habakkuk: "It (Pesher Habakkuk) describes the struggle
between the Teacher of Righteousness and his opponents - the Man
of Lies (also termed the Spouter or Preacher of Lies) and the Wicked
Priest. The Spouter is pictured as heading a community. The dispute
between the Teacher and the Spouter is seems to have been based
on matters of religious interpretation and law. The Wicked Priest
is said to have begun his rule in truth but then to have abandoned
the way of truth. He then persecutes the Teacher, confronting him
on the holiest day of the year, the Day of Atonement" (Reclaiming
the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 228).
This prophesy also continues in Pesher
Psalms: "This text also mentions the familiar dramatis personae:
the Teacher of Righteousness, termed 'the priest'; the wicked priest;
and the Man of Lies. The Wicked Priest persecuted the Teacher and
sought to kill him. The man of lies lead people astray" (Reclaiming
the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 229). What we
begin to see in all of this is the story of the coming of Jesus
(peace be upon him), his selection of Judas as one of the apostles,
the deviance of Judas from the truth, how a sect of the Jews persecuted
Jesus (peace be upon him), how this sect tried to deceive the masses
and differed with Jesus (peace be upon him) regarding the truth
of God's message, and finally, how they schemed with Judas to kill
Jesus (peace be upon him). The Teacher of Righteousness is thus
a reference to Jesus (peace be upon him); the "priestly"
Messiah. The Wicked Priest is a reference to Judas, and the Spouter
of Lies is most likely the leader of the "chief priests and
Pharisees" who persecuted Jesus (peace be upon him) and are
mentioned so often in the Bible.
Many Christian scholars have snatched
up these prophesies in order to prove the validity of their claim
that Jesus (peace be upon him) was indeed sent by God and that the
Jews are required to follow him. However, they have been thwarted
in their attempts by one other quite amazing piece of evidence that
the Jews continually manage to refute their claims with, specifically,
that the Dead Sea Scrolls claim that the coming messiah will be
persecuted and that the Wicked Priest will try to kill him, but
that the Wicked Priest will not be successful and that it is he
who will receive the fate he wished for the messiah.
In interpreting Psalms 37:32:
"The Wicked watches for the righteous, seeking to put him to
death," the text states: 'Its interpretation concerns the Wicked
Priest who watched out for the Teacher of Righteousness and sought
to put him to death'" (Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls,
Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 233). So Judas will try to kill Jesus
(peace be upon him).
"The Wicked Priest began his
career with the support of the sectarians, but he quickly lost his
way and began to transgress in order to increase his wealth"
(Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 233).
"And said unto them, What
will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted
with him for thirty pieces of silver". (Matthew 26:15)
"Various theories have sought
to identify the Teacher with Jesus, claiming that he was executed
by the Wicked Priest. However, had that been the case, the text
would not have gone on to explain how God took vengeance against
the priest by turning him over to the 'ruthless ones of the nations'.
And according to this text, the teacher certainly survived the ambush.
Indeed the entire passage is an interpretation of Psalms (37:33)
where the text continues:
"The Lord will not abandon him
(the Righteous), into his hand (the Wicked); He (The Lord) will
not let him (the Righteous) be condemned in judgement (by the wicked)."
(Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, pp.
The author goes on to quote Pesher
Habakkuk with regard to the Wicked Priest's intentions and his punishment.
He says: "Ultimately, however, the Wicked Priest was punished:
'.. because of his transgression against the Teacher of Righteousness
and the men of his council, God gave him over to the hands of his
enemies to afflict him with disease so as to destroy him with mortal
suffering because he had acted wickedly against His chosen one'.
The Wicked Priest's enemies tortured
him which represents divine punishment for his attacks on the Teacher
of Righteousness. The sufferings of the Wicked Priest are even more
graphically described in another passage: 'and all his enemies arose
and abused him in order for his suffering to be fit punishment for
his evil. And they inflicted upon him horrible diseases, and acts
of vengeance in the flesh of his body'. But the one who suffered
was the Wicked Priest, not the Teacher of Righteousness.
"The enemies of the Wicked Priest,
the nation against whom he had made war, are said to have tortured
him, so that his life ended in mortal disease and affliction."
(Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 234).
If we read the Gospel of Barnabas, we will find that when Judas
came with the Roman troops in order to betray Jesus (peace be upon
him), God raised Jesus (peace be upon him) unto Him and saved him.
He then made Judas look and even speak like Jesus (peace be upon
him) so that the Romans dragged him (Judas) away with them kicking
and screaming that he was not Jesus (peace be upon him) but Judas.
Even the Apostles were totally bewildered.
After the Romans had their fill afflicting
Judas with all manner of abuse and torture, he was finally taken
to trial. By now he had totally given up hope of ever being believed.
So now when he was asked, "art thou Jesus?" He replied
"Thou sayest". In other words, "you will not believe
me if I say otherwise, so why fight it any more". His enemies
(the Romans) then took him, mocked him, kicked him, cut him, spat
on him, humiliated him, and tortured him. Finally, they put him
up on the cross. It appears, however, that shortly after they took
him down, he disappeared from his tomb (maybe to live in disease
and torment and die later on if he was not already dead). The Gospel
of Barnabas then goes on to describe how Jesus (peace be upon him)
returned to the apostles to tell them of how God had saved him from
the hands of the Jews and the Romans and how the traitor (Judas)
was taken instead.
This is exactly what the Qur'an has
been saying for 1400 years now; that Jesus (peace be upon him) was
not forsaken by God to be killed by the conspiracy of the Jews and
Judas, but that "it was made to appear so to them":
Jesus became conscious of their disbelief, he cried: Who will be
my helpers in the cause of Allah? The disciples said: We will be
Allah's helpers. We believe in Allah, and bear you witness that
we have surrendered (unto Him). Our Lord! We believe in that which
You have revealed and we follow him whom You have sent. Enrol us
among those who witness (to the truth). And they (the disbelievers)
schemed, and Allah schemed (against them): and Allah is the best
"And because of their saying:
We slew the Messiah Jesus son of Mary, Allah's messenger, and they
slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto them; and lo!
those who disagree concerning it are in doubt thereof; they have
no knowledge thereof save pursuit of a conjecture; for of a surety
they slew him not"
The scrolls then go on to describe
how "Kittim" (the Roman empire) and the kings of Greece
would both try to take Jerusalem (the symbol of the faithful), but
that it would be Kittim (the Romans) who would finally be successful.
"Some texts also speak about
an eschatological prophet who will announce the coming of the Messiah,
a figure similar to Elijah in the rabinnic tradition" (Reclaiming
the Dead Sea Scrolls, Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 323).
Referring to the manuscript titled
The Rule of the Community, verse 9:11-12, Mr. Schiffman says:
"this text unquestionably refers to two messiahs who will be
announced by an eschatological prophet and based on a the cave 4
manuscripts of Rule of the Community, the original publication team
argued that this passage was added to the text later in the history
of the sect. However, the evidence in these manuscripts does not
sufficiently support such an assertion. As far as we can tell, the
'two-Messiah' concept was part of Rule of the Community from the
time it was composed". (Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls,
Lawrence H. Schiffman, p. 324).
there came unto them (the Jews) a Scripture from Allah, confirming
that in their possession though before that they were invoking Allah
(for the coming of Muhammad ) in order to gain victory over those
who disbelieved, then when there came unto them that which they
had recognised, they disbelieved in it. So let the curse of Allah
be on disbelievers"
The Dead Sea Scrolls make mention
of many more quite amazing and illuminating prophesies and parallels
with the teachings of the Qur'an and Islam and there is so much
more that could be said about the Dead Sea Scrolls and their confirmation
of the Qur'an and the mission of Muhammad, however, that will have
to be left to a future article where, God willing, many more detailed
examples of this sort shall be analysed in detail.