Eid Prayer and Khutbah
The Status of
the `Eid Prayer in Islam
The `Eid Prayer
is waajib (obligatory) according to the majority of scholars. The
Prophet (saws) performed it consistently and commanded all the people
to go out for it.
He (saws) even
specifically commanded all of the women to attend; Umm `Atiyyah
(ra) narrated that the Prophet (saws) commanded:
Let the free
women, the virgins, and the menstruating women go out to attend
the `Eid prayer, and witness the good and the supplications of the
believers. As for the menstruating women, they should stay away
from the musallaa. (i.e., should not participate in the prayer itself).
Ibn Taymiyyah (r) said:
we lean towards the opinion that Salaat ul-`Eid is fard `Ayn (individual
obligation) on each individual. This is the opinion of Abu Haneefah
and others, and is one of the two reported opinions of ash-Shaafi`ee
and of the school of Ahmad.
The opinion held by some people, that it is not waajib, it is extremely
unlikely, because it is one of the greatest rites of Islam; more
people gather for it than for Friday; and the Takbeer has been legislated
for its sake. The opinion of those who say that it is fard kifaayah
(communal obligation) is unjustified ..."
the Prophet (saws) consistently performed this prayer on every `Eid,
never neglecting it. He commanded the people to go out for it; he
even commanded the free women, the virgins, and the menstruating
women to go out, instructing the latter to refrain from praying,
in order for all of them to witness this good and the Muslims' supplications.
He (saws) further commanded the woman who did not own a jilbaab (outer
overall garment for women) to borrow her friend's.[4 ]
All of this
proves that this prayer is waajib on every individual, not only
a kifayah obligation. Commanding the people to go out for it entails
the command to perform the prayer (for those who have no excuse).
This is the content of his (saws) address, because going out is a
means for performing the prayer (an end); if the means is obligatory,
then the end is. And this obligation applies to men even more so
that women. A further evidence is that it overrides the Friday prayer
when both occur on the same day. That which is not waajib cannot
override that which is.
it is confirmed that the Prophet ((saws)) performed it consistently
in Jamaa`ah (congregation) from the time that it was legislated
until he died. To this is added his command to people to go out
the hadeeth of Umm `Atiyyah, our shaykh al-Albaanee states:
(saws) command mentioned here indicates obligation; when it is waajib
to go out for it, it is waajib to pray it, because of its higher
priority. Thus the truth is that it is an obligation - not a mere
The Time of
the Eid Prayer
No Prayer before
or after the `Eid Prayer
No sunnah prayer
may precede or follow the `Eid prayer - except if it is performed
in a masjid instead of the musallaa, in which case one must pray
two Rak`aat before sitting down. Ibn `Abbaas (t) narrated:
(saws) went out (of his house) on the day of Fitr, prayed two Rak`aat,
and did not pray before or after it."
he (saws) nor his companions prayed when they arrived at the musallaa
- before the prayer or after it."
And Ibn Hajar
said: "... In short, there is no confirmed sunnah prayer before
or after the `Eid prayer - contrary to those who compare it to the
Jumu`ah prayer."  But it is confirmed from Abu Sa`eed al-Khudree
(saws) would not pray at all before the `Eid prayer; but when he returned
to his house, he prayed."
commented on this:
negation of praying before and after the `Eid prayer refers only
to praying at the musallaa."
Time of the
Busr (ra) went out with some people to pray on a Fitr or Adha morning.
He expressed his disapproval of the imaam's delay of the prayer
beyond the time of tasbeeh, and said:
the time of the Prophet (saws)) used to be finished with the prayer
This is the
most authentic report regarding this issue. There are other reports,
but are not confirmed in terms of their chains of narrators. Ibn
(saws) delayed the prayer of `Eid ul-Fitr, and was prompt with that
of al-Adha. And Ibn `Umar, despite his extreme adherence to the
Sunnah, would not go out until the sun had risen."
of the two `Eid prayers is after the sun has reached the height
of a spear, and until noon. The consensus of the scholars about
this is in agreement with the (related) hadeeths - despite their
Abu Bakr al-Jazaa'iree
of the two Eid's prayers is after the sun has reached the height
of a spear, and until noon. However, it is best to pray al-Adh at
the earliest time, to enable the people to slaughter their sacrifices;
and is recommended to delay al-Fitr prayer, to enable the people
to give out their Sadaqah (zakaat ul-Fitr)."
of Crescent Sighting
If the day of
`Eid is not determined until late in the day (past the time of the
`Eid prayer), then the `Eid prayer is held the next day. Abu `Umayr
Bin Anas reported that some of his uncles, who were from the Ansaar,
and who were companions of the Prophet (saws), told him:
of Shawwaal was obscure to us. So we continued to fast that morning;
later in the day, a group of travellers arrived and testified before
Allaah's Messenger (saws) that they had seen the hilaal (crescent)
the previous day; so he (saws) commanded the people to break their
fast on that day, and to go out to the musallaa the following morning."
No Athaan or
The `Eid prayer
is not preceded with Athaan or Iqaamah. Jaabir Bin Samurah
the `Eid prayer with Allaah's Messenger (saws), on more than one occasion,
without Athaan or Iqaamah."
and Jaabir (ra) said:
was never given (for the `Eid prayer) on the day of Fitr, nor the
day of Adha."
would arrive at the musallaa and start the prayer without Athaan,
Iqaamah, or announcing, 'Congregate for prayer'. The Sunnah is not
to do any of that."
(r) commented on the above reports:
evidence that it is not permissible to do that (announcing) for
the `Eid prayer. So, doing it is a bid`ah (innovation)." 
of the Eid Prayer
Number of Rak`aat
The `Eid prayer
consists of two Rak`aat (full prayer units). `Umar (ra) reported:
prayer is two Rak`aat; the Adha prayer is two Rak`aat; the Fitr
prayer is two Rak`aat; and the Jumu`ah prayer is two Rak`aat; this
is their full length as came upon the tongue of Muhammad (saws)."
a. Like any
other deed in Islaam, the prayer must be preceded with the true
intention. The intention should be present in the heart before starting
b. Like any
other prayer, the first rak`ah (one prayer unit) must be started
with Takbeer ul-ihraam; this is followed by the opening supplication.
a. The opening
supplication is followed by seven Takbeers in the first rak`ah.
Likewise, the Takbeer when rising to the second rak`ah is followed
by five more Takbeers. `Aa'ishah (ra) said:
Messenger (saws) would say Takbeer in both Fitr and Adha: seven in
the first, and five in the second - other than the two Takbeers
of rukuu` (bowing)."
the opinion of most of the people of knowledge among the Companions
and those after them: to say, before reciting Qur'aan, in the first
rak`ah of the `Eid prayer, seven Takbeers other than the opening
Takbeer, and in the second, five Takbeers other than the Takbeer
of rising. This has been reported from Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Alee ,
and others."[ 29]
b. The Sunnah
is to say the Takbeers before the recitation, as in the hadeeth
of `Amr Bin Shu`ayb, from his father, from his grandfather (Ibn
`Umar ra), who said:
`Eid prayer, Allaah's Messenger (saws) said seven Takbeers in the
first rak`ah, recited (Qur'aan), said the Takbeer and bowed, prostrated
himself; then he stood, said five Takbeers, recited, said Takbeer,
bowed, and prostrated."
commented that anything contrary to this is not true.
c. There are
no authentic reports describing whether or not the Prophet (saws)
raised his hands with these additional Takbeers. For this reason,
from `Umar and his son do not make this a sunnah. Especially when
we know that these reports are not authentic. As for the one from
`Umar, it is recorded by al-Bayhaqee with a weak chain. As for his
son's, I have not been able to locate it now."
on various general hadeeths that report the raising of the hands
with Takbeer in the regular prayers, some scholars allow raising
the hands with these additional Takbeers. In this regard, Ibn ul-Qayyim
who is known to adhere closely to the Sunnah, used to raise his
hands with every one of the Takbeers."
commented on a similar issue:
raise his hands if he believes that Ibn `Umar would not do this
without an approval from the Prophet (saws) ."
d. There are
no authentic reports indicating that the people would raise their
voice with Takbeer when praying behind the imaam. The Sunnah is
to say all thikr secretly, except in specific cases where the contrary
was confirmed. This is enforced further in situations where raising
the voice would disturb other people's prayer. Therefore, it is
not permissible for anyone other than the imaam to raise the voice
with Takbeer in the prayer.
e. There is
no thikr (mention of Allaah (SWT)) confirmed from the Prophet (saws)
between the `Eid Takbeers. But it is reported that Ibn Mas`ood (ra)
every two Takbeers is a praise of Allaah and a salaah upon the Prophet
(saws) used to remain silent between every two Takbeers, and nothing
is reported from him regarding thikr between them."
f. The Takbeer
is a sunnah (recommended act). Leaving it, whether intentionally
or forgetfully, does not invalidate the prayer. There is no difference
of opinion on this among the scholars38. However, there is no doubt
that anyone who neglects it intentionally would be violating the
sunnah of the Prophet (saws).
a. After the
Takbeers, one should utter ta`awwuth and basmalah.
b. This is followed
by reciting al-Faatihah, which is a required pillar in every rak`ah
of every prayer.
c. This is followed
by reciting Soorat Qaaf (50) in the first rak`at, and Soorat ul-Qamar
(54) in the second.
one may recite: Surat ul-A`laa (87) in the first, and Soorat ul-Ghaasheeyah
(88) in the second.
Ibn ul-Qayyim (r) said:
these have been authentically reported from the action of the Prophet
(saws). Nothing else is authentic."
There is surely
wisdom in reciting these particular soorahs in Eid. Some of this
has been discussed by scholars like an-Nawawee and ash-Shawkaanee.
Of The Prayer
of the `Eid prayer is performed in the same manner as any other
prayer, without any difference.
If one misses
the `Eid prayer in Jamaa`ah, he must pray two Rak`aat. Imaam al-Bukhaaree
(r) headed a section as, "Section: One Who Misses the `Eid
Prayer Should Pray Two Rak`aat."And he added that `Ataa' (r)
misses the `Eid prayer, he prays two Rak`aat."
Hajar commented on this:
title are two important points:
a. The permission
to make up the `Eid prayer for the one who misses praying it with
the Jamaa`ah - whether that happened by compulsion or choice.
b. That it is
made-up as two Rak`aat." Waliyyullaah ad-Dahlawee (r) said:
the opinion of ash-Shaafi`ee - that if one misses the prayer with
the imaam, he should pray two Rak`aat in order to at least attain
the virtue of performing the `Eid prayer, despite the fact that
he missed the virtue of praying it in Jamaa`ah with the imaam.
As for the Hanafees, there is no make-up for the `Eid prayer. If
one misses it with the imaam, he has totally missed it."
opinion, anyone who prays the `Eid prayer individually, whether
man or woman, should say seven Takbeers in the first rak`ah, before
recitation, and five in the second, before recitation."
And Ibn Qudaamah
who comes late to the `Eid prayer should perform what he missed
according to the way that he missed it. This is true for any prayer."
The Eid Khutbah
The sunnah for
the khutbah (speech) is to follow the `Eid prayer. Ibn `Abbaas (ra)
the `Eid with Allaah's Messenger (saws), Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman
(ra); all of them would pray before the khutbah."
Ibn `Umar (ra)
(saws), Abu Bakr, and `Umar prayed the `Eid (prayers) before the khutbah."
headed these hadeeths with the title, "The Chapter on Holding
the khutbah after the `Eid Prayer." Waliyyullaah ad-Dahlawee
commented on this by saying:
that this (performing the prayer before the khutbah) was the sunnah
of Allaah's Messenger (saws), and the practice of the Righteous Khulafaa'
(Successors, ra) after him. The change that came later (switching
the khutbah and the prayer) is an innovation done by Marwaan."
This is stated
clearly by Abu Sa`eed al-Khudree (ra) who said:
day of al-Fitr and al-Adha, the Prophet (saws) used to go out (from
his house) to the musallaa, and the first thing that he did was
perform the prayer. Then he turned around and stood facing the people,
while they were sitting in their rows. He admonished, advised, and
if he wished to send an expedition, or give some orders, he would
do so; then he would depart.
The people followed
this tradition until I went out with Marwaan, when he was the ameer
(ruler) of al-Madeenah, for the prayer of `Eid ul-Adha or `Eid ul-Fitr.
When he reached the musallaa, I found a minbar (raised steps to
address people from), which was built by Katheer Bin as-Salt. Marwaan
started to mount the minbar before the prayer. I grabbed his shirt,
but he yanked it back, ascended the minbar, and delivered the khutbah
before the prayer. I said to him, 'By Allaah, you have changed (the
sunnah).' He replied, 'O Abu Sa`eed, that which you know is gone!'
I said, 'By Allaah, that which I know is better than that which
I do not.' So he explained, 'People would not sit to listen when
it was after the prayer, so I made it before it.' "
the acceptable practice among the people of knowledge among the
Prophet's (saws) companions and others: that the `Eid prayer should
precede the khutbah. It is reported that the first one to offer
the khutbah before the prayer was Marwaan Bin al-Hakam."
Takbeer At The
Beginning Of The Khutbah?
start this khutbah with Takbeer. This does not have any basis in
the Sunnah. There is a weak hadeeth that some people use as their
evidence. Al-Albaanee said in this regard:
reported from Sa`d ul-Qarz that, "The Prophet (saws) would say
Takbeer often during his khutbah, and he said it more often during
the `Eid khutbahs." - is a weak hadeeth. Besides, it does
not indicate starting the khutbah with Takbeer, but only that he
used to say it frequently during it."
Thus, this khutbah,
like any other one, should be started with praising and glorifying
Allaah (SWT). Ibn ul-Qayyim (r) said:
Messenger (saws) used to begin all of his khutbahs with al-hamdu lillaah.
Not even one authentic hadeeth indicates that he started the Eid's
khutbah with Takbeer."
One Or Two Khutbahs?
There is no
authentic hadeeth indicating that the `Eid khutbah is to be divided
into two parts separated with a sitting (as for Jumu`ah). The only
report in this regard is very weak.
Thus, the khutbah
should be kept as one unit, which is consistent with the original
understanding and practice.
It is not permissible
to bring out a minbar to the musallaa or to build a fixed one. This
follows from the above mentioned hadeeth of Abu Sa`eed (ra) where
he said, "... Then he (saws) turned around and stood facing the
people, while they were sitting in their rows. He admonished, advised,
and commanded them,"which makes it clear that he did not mount
a minbar. Also, he (ra) said to Marwaan, "By Allaah, you have
changed (the Sunnah)." His objection here refers to two things:
building the minbar, and delivering the khutbah before the prayer.
Bin `Abdillaah (ra) reported:
with Allaah's Messenger (saws) the prayer on a `Eid day. He started
with the prayer, before the khutbah, without Athaan or Iqaamah.
Then he stood, leaning on Bilaal, and commanded people to fear Allaah
indicates that he was not standing on a minbar during the khutbah.
khutbah is not waajib, as is the case for attending the prayer.
`Abdullaah Bin as-Saa'ib reported that he attended the `Eid with
the Prophet (saws); and when he (saws) finished the prayer, he said:
We shall have
a khutbah; so let whoever wishes to sit for the khutbah do so, and
whoever wishes to leave leave.
gave choice for those who attended the `Eid to either sit for the
khutbah or leave."
When the `Eid
Falls on a Friday
If the `Eid
occurs on a Friday, it becomes optional for men to attend the Jumu`ah
prayer. Abu Hurayrah (t) reported that, on such occurrence, Allaah's
Messenger (saws) said:
Two `Eeds have
coincided on this day of yours; thus, whoever wishes is exempted
from attending the Jumu`ah prayer. Yet, we shall hold it.
And Iyaas Bin
Abee Ramlah ash-Shaamee said:
Mu`aawiyah Bin Abee Sufyaan asking Zayd Bin Arqam, 'Were you with
Allaah's Messenger (saws) when one of the `Eeds and Friday occurred
on the same day?' He said, 'Yes.' He asked, 'What did he do?' He
answered, 'He (saws) performed the `Eid prayer, then gave the option
concerning Jumu`ah, saying, Let whoever wishes to pray it do so.
This is the
way of the companions (ra). For example, it is reported that on
such occasion `Alee (ra) said:
one who wishes to come for Jumu`ah do so, and the one who wishes
to sit do so."
A similar report
is recorded by al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh regarding `Uthmaan (ra).
It is also reported that `Abdullaah Bin az-Zubayr (ra) said:
are two `Eeds that have come together on one day. Their coincidence
makes them one (`Eid)."
Then he prayed
on that Friday two rak`aat in the morning as `Eid ul-Fitr prayer,
and did not pray anymore until he prayed the `Asr prayer.
(r) commented on this report:
understanding from this is that he did not pray zuhr. And that if
the Jumu`ah prayer is cancelled for any acceptable reason, then
the one for whom it was cancelled is not required to pray zuhr.
This is the opinion of `Ataa' ..."
the above reports and other similar ones from `Umar and Ibn `Abbaas
(ra), Ibn Taymiyyah (r) concluded:
have three different opinions (in this regard):
1. That one
is still obliged to pray the Jumu`ah - whether or not he prayed
the `Eid. This is the opinion of Maalik and others.
2. That the
Jumu`ah becomes optional for the people of the suburbs and villages.
This was practiced by `Uthmaan (ra), and ash-Shaafi`ee (r) took
up this opinion.
3. That the
Jumu`ah becomes optional for whomever prayed the `Eid. However,
the imaam is required to establish the Jumu`ah, so that those who
wish to attend it can do so ...;
This is what
has been authentically reported from Allaah's Messenger (saws) and
his successors and Sahaabah (ra), and is the opinion of the later
scholars who learned of these reports, such as Imaam Amad. Those
who disagreed with him did not learn about these hadeeths and reports."
Muslim, and others.
Ibn `ASabidayn 2:166.
3. Majmuu` ul-Fataawee
Muslim, and others.
5. Abu Hurayrah
(t) narrated that one time the `Eid fell on a Friday. The Messenger
of Allaah (saws) said: Two `Eeds have come together on this day of
yours; so whoever wishes, he is excused from the Jumu`ah (Friday)
prayer. But as for us, we shall gather for the Jumu`ah. [Abu Daawood
and Ibn Maajah with a hasan chain of narrators]
6. As-Sayl ul-Jarraar
1:315. See also Nayl ul-awtaar and ar-Rawat un-Nadiyyah.
7. Tamaam ul-Minnah
Muslim, and others.
9. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
2:443. Note that this does not apply to the masjid. If the `eed
prayer were held there for any reason, then one would have to pray
before it two rak`aat that constitute the masjid's greeting.
10. Fath ul-Baaree
by Ahmad and Ibn Maajah. Judged hasan by al-Albaanee.
12. Irwaa ul-Ghaleel
13. This is
the time when it becomes permissible to perform the optional prayer
after sunrise (15 to 30 minutes after sunrise). See Fath ul-Baaree
14. Abu Daawood,
Ibn Maajah, and others with and authentic chain of narrators. Al-Bukhaaree
cited it in a confirmed manner but without providing its chain.
15. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
of al-Madeenah who helped and supported the Prophet (saws).
19. Abu Daawood,
an-Nasaa`ee, and Ibn Maajah; authentic. See Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel 3:102.
20. Call to
announce the arrival of the prayer's time.
21. Call to
start the prayer.
Abu Daawood, and at-Tirmithee.
24. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
25. Subul us-Salaam
26. Ahmad, an-Nasaa`ee,
at-Tahaawee in Sharu Ma`aanee 'l-Aathaar, and al-Bayhaqee with an
authentic chain of narrators.
27. The Takbeer
of prohibition - thus named because it marks the beginning of the
prayer, making it prohibited to do any action not related to prayer.
28. Abu Daawood,
Amad, Ibn Maajah, and al-Bayhaqee with an authentic chain of narrators.
29. Sharh us-Sunnah
30. Abu Daawood,
Ibn Maajah, and Amad. This is a hasan hadeeth because of its witnesses.
See Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel 3:108-112.
31. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
32. Tamaam ul-Minnah
33. Such as
Maalik, Ibn ul-Munthir, and al-Bayhaqee.
34. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
35. Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz
by al-Bayhaqee with a good (jayyid) chain. See Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel
37. Zaad ul-Ma`aad.
2:244 by Ibn Qudaamah.
billaahi min ash-Shaytaan ir-Rajeem, which means: "I seek refuge
in Allaah from the Outcast Devil".
ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem, which means "In the name of Allah the
Merciful, the Bestower of mercy".
an-Nasaa`ee, at-Tirmithee, and Ibn Maajah, from the report of Abu
Waaqid al-Laythee (ra).
at-Tirmithee, an-Nasaa`ee, and Ibn Maajah, reported from al-Nu`maan
Bin Basheer (ra).
43. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
44. Sharu Muslim
45. Nayl ul-Awtaar
46. It is recommended
to review the excellent book: Sifatu salaat in-Nabee by al-Albaanee.
47. Saheeh ul-Bukhaaree.
48. Fath ul-Baaree
49. Sharhu Taraajimi
Abwaab il-Bukhaaree 80.
Muslim, and Ahmad.
Muslim, at-Tirmithee, an-Nasaa`ee, Ibn Maajah, and Ahmad.
54. This is
Marwaan Bin al-Hakam Bin Abee al-`Aas, third Umayyad khaleefa, who
died in 65 AH.
55. Sharju Taraajimi
Abwaab il-Bukhaaree 79.
Muslim, an-Nasaa`ee, al-Bayhaqee and Ahmad.
57. Sunan ut-Tirmithee
by Ibn Maajah, al-Haakim, and al-Bayhaqee. In its chain is `Abdurrahmaan
Bin Sa`d Bin `Ammaar Bin Sa`d al-Mu`aththin, his father, and his
grandfather. `Abdurrahmaan is weak; and his father and grandfather
are unknown. See Da`if Sunan Ibn Maajah, and Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel (3:119)
59. Tamaam ul-Minnah
60. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
61. This was
recorded by al-Bazzaar in his Musnad from his shaykh `Abdullaah
Bin Shabeeb, up to Sa`d (ra) that, "the Prophet (saws) would
give two khubahs separated by a sitting." Al-Halabee said,
"`Abdullaah Bin Shabeeb is labeled by al-Bukhaaree as being
'Not acceptable in reporting hadeeth.' "
62. Muslim and
63. Aboo Daawood,
an-Nasaa`ee, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim, with an authentic chain of
narrators; see Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel 3:96-98.
64. Zaad ul-Ma`aad
by Abu Daawood, an-Nasaa`ee, Ibn Maajah, and others; authenticated
by al-Albaanee in Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel.
66. Abu Daawood,
an-Nasaa`ee, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Khuzaymah, ad-Daarimee, and Ahmad.
Imaam `Alee Bin al-Madeenee authenticated it in, al-Talkhees ul-Khabeer.
in his Musannaf, and Ibn Abu Shaybah in his Musannaf with an authentic
chain of narrators.
68. Abu Daawood
and `Abdurrazzaaq with an authentic chain.
69. Nayl ul-Awtaar
Praise be to
Allaah, Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our
Prophet Muhammad and upon all his family and companions.
is an Arabic word referring to something habitual, that returns
and is repeated. Eids or festivals are symbols to be found in every
nation, including those that are based on revealed scriptures and
those that are idolatrous, as well as others, because celebrating
festivals is something that is an instinctive part of human nature.
All people like to have special occasions to celebrate, where they
can come together and express their joy and happiness.
of the kaafir nations may be connected to worldly matters, such
as the beginning of the year, the start of an agricultural season,
the changing of the weather, the establishment of a state, the accession
of a ruler, and so on. They may also be connected to religious occasions,
like many of the festivals belonging exclusively to the Jews and
Christians, such as the Thursday on which they claim the table was
sent down to Jesus, Christmas, New Years, Thanksgiving, and
holidays on which gifts are exchanged. These are celebrated in all
European and North American countries nowadays, and in other countries
where Christian influence is prevalent, even if the country is not
originally Christian. Some so-called Muslims may also join in these
holidays, out of ignorance or hypocrisy.
(Zoroastrians) also have their own festivals, such as Mahrajaan,
Nowruz and so on.
have their own festivals too, such as Eid al-Ghadeer,
when they claim that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) gave the khilaafah to Ali (may Allaah be pleased
with him) and to the twelve imaams after him.
are distinguished by their festivals
(saws) words Every nation has its festival, and this is your
festival indicate that these two Eids are exclusively for
the Muslims, and that it is not permissible for Muslims to imitate
the kuffaar and mushrikeen in anything that is a distinctive part
of their celebrations, whether it be food, dress, bonfires or acts
should not be allowed to play on those kaafir festivals, or to join
in with the kuffaar on those occasions. All kaafir or innovated
festivals are haraam, such as Independence Day celebrations, anniversaries
of revolutions, holidays celebrating trees or accessions to the
throne, birthdays, Labour Day, the Nile festival, Shimm al-Naseem
(Egyptian spring holiday), teachers day, and al-Mawlood al-Nabawi
have no festivals apart from Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhaa, because
of the hadeeth narrated from Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him)
who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and the people had two days
when they would play and have fun. He said, What are these
two days? They said, We used to play and have fun on
these days during the Jaahiliyyah. The Messenger of Allaah (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, Allaah has given
you something better than them, the day of Adhaa and the day of
Fitr. (Sunan Abi Dawood, 1134)
These two Eids
are among the signs or symbols of Allaah which we must celebrate
and understand the aims and meanings behind them.
a discussion of some of the rulings and manners of the two Eids
according to Islamic shareeah
al-Eid (Rulings on Eid)
It is haraam
to fast on the days of Eid because of the hadeeth of Abu Saeed
al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger
of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade fasting
on the day of Fitr and the day of Sacrifice (Adhaa). (Reported by
Ruling on the
Some of the
scholars say that Eid prayers are waajib (obligatory) this
is the view of the Hanafi scholars and of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah
(may Allaah have mercy on him). They say that the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always prayed the Eid prayer
and never omitted to do it, not even once. They take as evidence
the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), Therefore turn
in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only) [al-Kawthar
108:2], i.e., the Eid prayer and the sacrifice after it, which is
an instruction, and the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) ordered that the women should be brought
out to attend the Eid prayers, and that a woman who did not have
a jilbaab should borrow one from her sister. Some scholars say that
Eid prayer is fard kifaaya. This is the view of the Hanbalis. A
third group say that Eid prayer is sunnah muakkadah. This
is the view of the Maalikis and Shaafais. They take as evidence
the hadeeth of the Bedouin which says that Allaah has not imposed
any prayers on His slaves other than the five daily prayers. So
the Muslim should be keen to attend Eid prayers, especially since
the opinion that it is waajib is based on strong evidence. The goodness,
blessings and great reward one gets from attending Eid prayers,
and the fact that one is following the example of the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by doing so, should be sufficient
timing of Eid prayer
(the Hanafis and Hanbalis) say that the conditions of Eid prayer
are that the iqaamah should be recited and the prayer should be
offered in jamaaah (congregation). Some of them said that
the conditions of Eid prayer are the same as the conditions for
Friday prayer, with the exception of the khutbah, attendance at
which is not obligatory. The majority of scholars say that the time
for the Eid prayer starts when the sun has risen above the height
of a spear, as seen by the naked eye, and continues until the sun
is approaching its zenith.
of the Eid prayer
Allaah be pleased with him) said: The prayer of Eid and al-Adhaa
is two complete rakahs, not shortened. This is according to
the words of your Prophet, and the liar is doomed.
said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) used to come out to the prayer-place on the day of
Fitr and al-Adhaa, and the first thing he would do was the prayer.
is repeated seven times in the first rakah and five times
in the second, the Quraan is to be recited after each.
It was reported
from Aaishah: the Takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adhaa is
seven in the first rakah and five in the second, apart from
the takbeer of rukoo. (Reported by Abu Dawood; saheeh by the
sum of its isnaads)
If a person
joining the prayer catches up with the imaam during these extra
takbeeraat, he should say Allaahu akbar with the imaam,
and he does not have to make up any takbeeraat he may have missed,
because they are sunnah, not waajib. With regard to what should
be said between the takbeeraat, Hammaad ibn Salamah reported from
Ibraaheem that Waleed ibn Uqbah entered the mosque when Ibn
Masood, Hudhayfah and Abu Moosa were there, and said, Eid
is here, what should I do? Ibn Masood said: Say
Allaahu akbar, praise and thank Allaah, send blessings
on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and make
duaa, then say Say Allaahu akbar, praise
and thank Allaah, send blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him)
etc. (Reported by al-Tabaraani.
It is a saheeh hadeeth that is quoted in al-Irwaa and elsewhere).
Quraan in Eid prayers
It is recommended
(mustahabb) that in the Eid prayers the imaam should recite Qaaf
[soorah 50] and Aqtarabat al-saaah [al-Qamar, soorah 54],
as it is reported in Saheeh Muslim that Umar ibn al-Khattaab
asked Abu Waaqid al-Laythi, What did the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite at [Eid]
al-Adhaa and al-Fitr? He said, He used to recite Qaaf.
Wal-Quraan al-majeed [Qaaf 50:1] and Aqtarabat al-saaah
wa anshaqq al-qamar [al-Qamar 54:1].
Most of the
reports indicate that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) used to recite Soorat al-Alaa  and Soorat
al-Ghaashiyah , as he used to recite them in the Friday prayer.
Al-Numaan ibn Bishr said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite on the two Eids
and on Fridays, Sabbih isma rabbikal-alaa [al-Alaa
87:1] and Hal ataaka hadeeth al-ghaashiyah [al-Ghaashiyah 88:1].
(Saheeh Muslim, 878).
Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) used to recite on the two Eids, Sabbih isma
rabbikal-alaa [al-Alaa 87:1] and Hal ataaka hadeeth
al-ghaashiyah [al-Ghaashiyah 88:1]. (Reported by Ahmad and
others; it is saheeh. Al-Irwaa, 3/116)
The prayer comes
before the khutbah
One of the rulings
of Eid is that the prayer should come before the khutbah, as is
reported in Musnad Ahmad from the hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas, who
testified that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) prayed before the khutbah on Eid, then he gave the
khutbah. (Musnad Ahmad, 1905. The hadeeth is also in al-Saheehayn).
that the khutbah should be after the prayer is the hadeeth of Abu
Saeed (may Allaah be pleased with him): The Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to go out to the
prayer-place on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adhaa, and the first thing
he would do was to pray, then he would stand up facing the people,
whilst they were still sitting in their rows, and would advise and
instruct them. If he wanted to send out a military expedition, he
would decide about the matter then, or if he wanted to issue a command,
he would do it then. Abu Saeed said: This is what
the people continued to do until I came out [to the Eid prayers]
with Marwaan, when he was governor of Madeenah, on either Adhaa
or Fitr. When we reached the prayer-place, we saw the minbar, which
had been built by Katheer ibn al-Salt. Marwaan wanted to get on
the minbar before the prayer. I pulled on his cloak, and he pulled
on mine in return, then he got on the minbar and gave the khutbah
before the prayer. I said, You have changed it, by Allaah!
He said, O Abu Saeed, what you know is gone. I
said, What I know, by Allaah, is better than what I do not
know. He said, The people will not remain sitting after
the prayer, so we made it [the khutbah] before the prayer.
(Reported by al-Bukhaari, 956).
Anyone who wants
to leave during the khutbah is allowed to do so
ibn al-Saaib said: I attended Eid with the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when he finished the prayer,
he said: We will give the khutbah, so whoever wants to sit
(and listen to) the khutbah, let him sit, and whoever wants to leave,
let him go. (Irwaa al-Ghaleel, 3/96)
the prayer for too long
ibn Bishr, the companion of the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him), went out with the people on the day of Fitr
or al-Adhaa, and objected to the fact that the imaam came very late.
He said, At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) we would have finished by now, and that
was at the time of al-Tasbeeh . (Reported by al-Bukhaari )
in the prayer-place
There are no
naafil prayers to be done either before or after the Eid prayer,
as Ibn Abbaas reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) used to come out on the day of Eid and pray
two rakahs, with nothing before or after them.
This is the
case if the prayer is offered in a prayer place or public place.
If, however, the people pray the Eid prayer in a mosque, then they
should pray two rakahs for Tahiyat al-Masjid (Greeting
the mosque) before sitting down.
If people did
not know about Eid until the next day
ibn Anas reported from his paternal uncles among the Ansaar who
said: It was cloudy and we could not see the new moon of Shawwaal,
so we started the day fasting, then a caravan came at the end of
the day and told the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) that they had seen the new moon of Shawwaal
the day before, so he told the people to stop fasting, and they
went out to pray the Eid prayer the next day. (Reported by
the five. It is saheeh; al-Irwaa, 3/102)
If someone misses
the Eid prayer, the most correct view is that he may make it up
by praying two rakahs.
attendance at Eid prayers
We used to prevent prepubescent girls from attending Eid prayers.
Then a woman came and stayed at the fort of Banu Khalaf, and told
us about her sister. Her sisters husband had taken part in
twelve campaigns with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) and [she said], my sister was with him on six
of them. She said, We used to treat the wounded and take care
of the sick. My sister asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) whether there was anything wrong with her not
going out [on Eid] if she did not have a jilbaab. He said, Let
her friend give her one of her jilbaabs so that she may witness
the blessings of Eid and see the Muslims gathering.
When Um Atiyah came, I asked her, Did you hear the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) [say this]? She
said, May my father be sacrificed for him and
she never mentioned him without saying may my father be sacrificed
for him I heard him saying that we should bring
out the young girls and those who were secluded, or the young girls
who were secluded, and the menstruating women, so that they could
witness the blessings of Eid and see the gathering of the believers,
but those who were menstruating were to keep away from the prayer-place
itself. (Saheeh al-Bukhaari, 324).
girls (awaatiq, sing. aatiq) are girls who have
reached adolescence or are close to it, or have reached the age
of marriage, or are very precious to their families, or who are
spared from having to do humiliating work. It appears that they
used to prevent these young girls from going out because of the
corruption that arose after the first generation of Islam; but the
Sahaabah did not approve of that and they thought that the ruling
should remain in their time as it had been during the time of the
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Where it says
My sister was with him it seems that there is something
omitted, probably the woman said. [This is reflected
in the translation above. Translator].
she should lend her some of her clothes that she does not
they would have a curtain in the corner of the house behind
which virgins would stay.
women huyyad, sing. haaid this may refer
either to girls who have reached the age of puberty, or women who
are having their period and are not taahir (pure).
women should avoid the prayer-place itself Ibn al-Munayyir
said: The reason why they should avoid the prayer-place is
that if they stand with the women who are praying even though they
are not praying, it may appear that they have no respect for the
prayer or are careless, so it better for them to avoid that.
It was said
that the reason why menstruating women should avoid the prayer-place
is as a precaution, so that women will not come near men for no
reason if they are not praying, or so that they will not offend
others with their blood or their odour.
urges everyone to attend Eid prayer, and to co-operate with one
another in righteousness and piety. The menstruating woman should
not forsake the remembrance of Allaah or places of goodness such
as gatherings for the purpose of seeking knowledge and remembering
Allaah apart from mosques. The hadeeth also indicates that
women should not go out without a jilbaab.
tells us that it is not proper for young women and women in seclusion
to go out except for a valid reason. It states that it is preferable
(mustahabb) for a woman to wear a jilbaab, and that it is permissible
to lend and borrow clothes. It also indicates that Eid prayer is
Ibn Abi Shaybah
also narrated that Ibn Umar used to take whoever he could
of his household out to the Eid prayers.
of Umm Atiyah also states the reason for the ruling, which
is so that women may witness the blessings of Eid, see the gathering
of the Muslims, and share the blessings and purification of this
(may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Sunan, after quoting
the hadeeth of Umm Atiyah: Some of the scholars referred
to this hadeeth and allowed women to go out to the Eid prayers,
and some of them disliked this. It was reported that Abd-Allaah
ibn al-Mubaarak said: I do not like for women to go out to
Eid prayers nowadays. If a woman insists on going out, her husband
should let her, if she goes out wearing her shabbiest clothes and
not adorning herself. If she insists on adorning herself, then she
should not go out. In this case the husband has the right to stop
her from going out. It was reported that Aaishah (may
Allaah be pleased with her) said: If the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) had seen what has happened to women,
he would have stopped them from going to the mosques, just as the
women of Bani Israaeel were stopped. It was reported
that Sufyaan al-Thawri did not like women to go to the Eid prayers
in his day. (Al-Tirmidhi, 495).
gave her fatwa in the hadeeth mentioned above a while after the
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had died, and
it is not reported that any of the Sahaabah disagreed with this.
The words of Aaishah, If the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) had seen what has happened to women,
he would have stopped them from going to the mosques, do not
contradict this (provided that women are meeting the Islamic conditions
attached to their going out)
It is better if permission is
given only to those women who are not who are not going to look
at men or be looked at, whose attendence will not lead to anything
undesirable and who are not going to rub shoulders with men on the
street or in the mosque. (i.e., women whose going out will not cause
fitnah or temptation to her or to men).
Men should check
on their womenfolk when they going out for the prayer to make sure
that their hijaab is complete, because they are the shepherds
who are responsible for their flocks. Women should go
out in shabby clothes, not adorned or wearing perfume. Menstruating
women should not enter the mosque or prayer-place; they can wait
in the car, for example, where they can hear the khutbah.
(Etiquette of Eid)
One of the manners
of Eid is to take a bathe before going out to the prayer. It is
reported in a saheeh report in al-Muwatta and elsewhere that
Abd-Allaah ibn Umar used to take a bath on the day of
al-Fitr before coming to the prayer-place. (al-Muwatta 428)
It was reported
that Saeed ibn Jubayr said: Three things are sunnah
on Eid: to walk (to the prayer-place), to take a bath and to eat
before coming out. This is what Saeed ibn Jubayr said,
and he may have learned this from some of the Sahaabah.
Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned that the scholars were agreed
that it is mustahabb to take a bath before the Eid prayer.
The reason why
it is mustahabb to take a bath before Friday prayer and other public
gatherings also applies in the case of Eid, only more so.
One should not
come out to the prayer-place on Eid al-Fitr before eating some dates,
because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik
who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) would not go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr
until he had eaten some dates
and he would eat an odd number.
It is mustahabb
to eat before coming out because this confirms that we are not allowed
to fast on this day, and demonstrates that the fast is now over.
Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) explained that this is
to prevent people extending the fast and it also means obeying the
commandment of Allaah. (Fath, 2/446). If a person does not have
any dates, he can eat anything permissible for breakfast. On Eid
al-Adhaa, on the other hand, it is mustahabb not to eat until after
the prayer, when one should eat from the meat of ones sacrifice.
Takbeer on the
day of Eid
This is one
of the greatest sunnahs of this day, because of the words of Allaah
(interpretation of the meaning):
(He [Allaah] wants
that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you
must magnify Allaah (say Takbeer Allaahu akbar)
for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.
Muslim said: I asked al-Oozaai and Maalik ibn Anas about
saying Takbeer aloud on Eid. They said, Yes, Abd-Allaah
ibn Umar used to say it aloud on the day of Fitr until the
imaam came out.
al-Rahmaan al-Salami said: On Eid al-Fitr they would say it
louder than on Eid al-Adhaa. Wakee said, i.e.,
the takbeer. (Irwaa, 3/122).
and others reported that when Ibn Umar came out on Eid al-Fitr
and Eid al-Adhaa, he would strive hard in making Takbeer until he
reached the prayer-place, then he would continue making Takbeer
until the imaam came.
Ibn Abi Shaybah
reported with a saheeh isnaad that al-Zuhri said: The people
used to make Takbeer on Eid when they came out of their houses until
they reached the prayer-place and until the imaam came out. When
the imaam came out, they fell silent, until the imaam said Takbeer,
then they said Takbeer. (Irwaa, 2/121).
of making Takbeer from home to the prayer-place, and until the imaam
comes in, was well-known among the salaf and was reported by a number
of authors such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, Abd al-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi
in his book Ahkaam al-Eidayn from a group of the salaf. An
example of this is the report that Naafi ibn Jubayr used to
make Takbeer and wondered why people did not do so. He would say
to people, Why do you not make Takbeer? Ibn Shihaab
al-Zuhri said, The people used to make Takbeer from the time
they left their homes until the imaam came in.
The time for
making Takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night of Eid until
the time when the imaam comes in to lead the prayer.
of the Takbeer
Ibn Abi Shaybah
reported in al-Musannaf that Ibn Masood (may Allaah be pleased
with him) used to say Takbeer on the days of Tashreeq as follows:
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu
akbar, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaahil-hamd (Allaah is Most Great
there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, and to Allaah
be praise). Ibn Abi Shaybah reported it elsewhere with the
same isnaad, but with the phrase Allaahu akbar repeated
also reported that Ibn Masood used to say: Allaahu akbaru
kabeeran, Allaahu akbaru kabeeran, Allaahu akbar wa ajall, Allaahu
akbar wa Lillaahil-hamd (Allaah is Most Great of All, Allaah
is Most Great of all, Allaah is most Great and Most Glorious, and
to Allaah be praise). (al-Irwaa, 3/126).
People may exchange
congratulations and good greetings on Eid, no matter what form the
words take. For example they may say to one another, Taqabbal
Allaahu minnaa wa minkum (May Allaah accept [the fast and worship]
from us and from you or Eid mubarak and other
similar permissible greetings.
Jubayr ibn Nufayr
said: At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him), when people met one another on the day of Eid, they
would say, Taqabbal Allaahu minnaa wa minka (May Allaah accept
from us and from you). (Ibn Hajar. Its isnaad is hasan.
of exchanging greetings was well-known at the time of the Sahaabah
and scholars such as Imaam Ahmad and others allowed it. There are
reports which indicate that it is permissible to congratulate people
on special occasions. The Sahaabah used to congratulate one another
when something good happened, such as when Allaah accepted a persons
repentance and so on.
There is no
doubt that congratulating others in this way is one of the noblest
kinds of good manners and one of the highest social qualities among
At the very
least, one can return Eid greetings when they are given to you,
and remain silent if nothing is said, as Imaam Ahmad (may Allaah
have mercy on him) said: If someone congratulates me, I return
the greeting, but I do not initiate it.
best for Eid
ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: Umar
picked up a jubbah (long outer garment) made of silk that was for
sale in the market, brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, O Messenger
of Allaah, buy this and wear it for Eid and when the delegations
come. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) said, This is the clothing of the one who has
no share of the Hereafter
(Reported by al-Bukhaari,
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of Umars
idea of looking ones best, but he rejected and denounced the
idea of buying this jubbah because it was made of silk.
Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) had a jubbah that he would wear on Eid and
on Fridays. (Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1765).
that Ibn Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid, so men should
wear the best clothes they have when they go out for Eid.
Women, on the
other hand, should avoid adornment when they go out for Eid, because
they are prohibited from showing their adornment in front of non-mahrem
men. A woman who wants to go out is forbidden to wear perfume or
to show off in a tempting way in front of men, because she is only
going out for the purpose of worship. Do you think that it is right
for a believing woman to disobey the One Whom she is going out to
worship and go against His commands by wearing attention-grabbing
tight and brightly coloured clothes or by putting on perfume and
Ruling on listening
to the Eid khutbah
(may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his book al-Kaafi (p. 234):
imaam has said the salaam (at the end of the prayer), he should
give a khutbah in two parts, like the two Friday khutbahs, because
the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did this.
(The Eid khutbah) differs from the Friday khutbahs in four ways
the fourth of which is: that it is sunnah and it is not obligatory
to listen to it, because it was reported that Abd-Allaah ibn
al-Saaib said: I attended Eid with the Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when he
had finished the prayer, he said: We are going to give a khutbah,
so whoever wishes to sit (and listen) to the khutbah, let him sit
down, and whoever wants to leave, let him go.
Allaah have mercy on him) said in his book al-Majmoo Sharh
al-Muhadhdhab, p. 23: It is mustahabb for people to listen
to the khutbah, although the khutbah and listening to it are not
essential conditions of the Eid prayer. But al-Shaafa'i said: If
someone does not listen to the khutbah of Eid, at the time of an
eclipse, when prayers for rain are offered, or during Hajj, or he
speaks during one of these khutbahs, or leaves, I would not like
this, but he does not have to repeat the prayer.
al-Mumti ala Zaad al-Mustanfi by Ibn Uthaymeen,
5/192, it says:
words, like the two Friday khutbahs means that he should
give two khutbahs, even though there is a dispute in this matter,
as we have referred to above. The Eid khutbah is subject to the
same rulings as the Friday khutbah, even to the point that speaking
during it is haraam, but it is not obligatory to attend, whereas
attendance at the Friday khutbah is obligatory, because Allaah says
(interpretation of the meaning): O you who believe! When the
call for prayer on the day of Jumuah (Friday) is given, come
to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumuah khutbah and prayer],
and leave off business
[al-Jumuah 62:9]. Attendance
at the Eid khutbahs is not obligatory, and a person is allowed to
leave, but if he stays he must not talk to anyone. This is what
the author is referring to when he says like the two Friday
One of the scholars
said: It is not obligatory to listen to the Eid khutbahs,
because if it was obligatory to attend and listen to them it would
be haraam to leave. But as it is permissible to leave, it is not
obligatory to listen.
if talking disturbs those who are listening, it is haraam to talk
because of this disturbance, not because of not listening. On this
basis, if a person has a book with him during the imams Eid
khutbah, it is permissible for him to read it, because this does
not disturb anyone. But according to the madhhab followed by this
author, it is obligatory to listen to the khutbah if one is present.
To go out one
by one route and come back by another
Jaabir ibn Abd-Allaah
(may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his routes on
the day of Eid. (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 986)
It was also
reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) used to go out walking, and he prayed without any adhaan or
iqaamah, then he would come back walking by a different route. It
was said that this was so that the two different routes would testify
in his favour on the Day of Resurrection, because on that Day the
earth will speak about everything that was done on it, good and
evil. It was also said that this was done in order to demonstrate
the symbols and rituals of Islam along both routes; to pronounce
the remembrance of Allaah; to annoy the hypocrites and Jews and
to scare them by the number of people who were with him; to meet
the peoples needs by giving fatwas, teaching them and setting
an example for them to follow; to give charity to those in need;
or to visit his relatives and uphold the ties of kinship.
1. Some people
think that Islam tells us to stay up and pray on the night of Eid,
quoting an unsound hadeeth which says that whoever stays up
and prays on the night of Eid, his heart will not die on the day
when hearts die. This hadeeth was reported with two isnaads,
one of which is daeef (weak), and the other is very daeef.
Islam does not tell us to single out the night of Eid for staying
up and praying; if, however, a person habitually stays up and prays
at night (qiyaam), there is nothing wrong with him doing so on the
night of Eid as well.
2. Mixing of
men and women in some prayer-places, streets, etc. It is a pity
that this happens not only in mosques but even in the most sacred
of places, al-Masjid al-Haraam [in Makkah]. Many women may
Allaah guide them go out uncovered ,wearing make-up and perfume,
flaunting their adornment, when there is such serious overcrowding
in the mosques the dangers of this situation are quite obvious.
So those who are in charge must organize the Eid prayers properly,
by allocating separate doors and routes for women and delaying the
mens departure until the women have left.
3. Some people
get together on Eid for the purpose of singing and other forms of
idle entertainment, and this is not permitted.
4. Some people
celebrate on Eid because Ramadaan is over and they no longer have
to fast. This is a mistake, the believers celebrate at Eid because
Allaah has helped them to complete the month of fasting, not because
the fasting ,which some people regard as a heavy burden, is over.
We ask Allaah
to accept our worship and our repentance. May Allaah bless our Prophet
Rulings of Udhiyah
Praise be to
Allaah and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allaah,
Muhammad, and upon his family and companions.Udhiyah is one of the
great rituals of Islam, in which we remember the Unity of Allaah,
His blessings upon us and the obedience of our father Ibraaheem
to his Lord, and in this act of udhiyah there is much goodness and
blessing. So the Muslim must pay attention to its great importance.
The following is a brief look at this important ritual.
to the animal (camel, cattle or sheep) that is sacrificed as an
act of worship to Allaah, in the country in which the person offering
the sacrifice lives, during the period from after the Eid prayer
on the Day of Nahr (Eid al-Adhaa) until the last of the Days of
Tashreeq (the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah), with the intention
of offering sacrifice. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
turn in prayer to your Lord anf sacrifice (to Him only). [al-Kawthar
Muhammad ): Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and
my dying are for Allaah, the Lord of the Aalameen (mankind,
jinns and all that exists). [al-Anaam 6:162]
every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may
mention the Name of Allaah over the beast of cattle that He has
given them for food. And your God is One God, so you must submit
to Him Alone (in Islam)
a confirmed Sunnah according to the majority of scholars (some scholars
say that it is waajib or obligatory; this will be discussed in more
detail below). The basic principle is that it is required at the
appointed time from one who is alive on behalf of himself and the
members of his household, and he may include in the reward for it
whoever he wishes, living or dead. With regard to udhiyah on behalf
of one who is dead, if the deceased bequeathed up to one third of
his wealth for that purpose, or included it in his waqf (endowment),
then these wishes must be carried out, otherwise, if a person wishes
to offer a sacrifice on behalf of someone who has died, this is
a good deed and is considered to be giving charity on behalf of
the dead. But the Sunnah is for a man to include the members of
his household, living and deed, in his udhiyah, and when he slaughters
it, he should say, Allaahumma haadha anni wa an
aali bayti (O Allaah, this is on behalf of myself and the members
of my household he does not have to make a separate
sacrifice on behalf of every deceased person.
agreed that sacrificing the animal and giving its meat in charity
is better than giving its value in charity, because the Messenger
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to make the sacrifice,
and he did not do anything but that which is best and most befitting.
This is the opinion of Abu Haneefah, al-Shaafa'i and Ahmad.
of Udhiyah and the Best of Udhiyah
A sheep is good
enough as a sacrifice for one man and the members of his household
and his children, because of the hadeeth of Abu Ayyoob: At
the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself
and the members of his household, and they would eat from it and
give some to others. (Reported by Ibn Maajah and al-Tirmidhi,
who classed it as saheeh)
The kinds of
animals prescribed for sacrifice are camels, cattle and sheep. Some
of the scholars said that the best sacrifice is camels, then cattle,
then sheep, then a share in a she-camel or cow, because the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said concerning Friday
prayers: Whoever goes to [Friday prayers] early, it is equivalent
to him sacrificing a camel. This is the opinion of the three
imaams Abu Haneefah, al-Shaafa'i and Ahmad. On this basis, a sheep
is better than one-seventh of a camel or cow. Maalik said that the
best is a young sheep, then a cow then a camel, because the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed two rams,
and he never did anything but that which was the best. The response
to that is that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always
chose what was more appropriate out of kindness towards his ummah,
because they would follow his example, and he did not want to make
things difficult for them. (Fataawa al-Shaykh Abd al-Azeez
A camel or cow
is enough for seven people, because of the report narrated by Jaabir
(may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: We sacrificed at
al-Hudaybiyah with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him), a camel for seven and a cow for seven. According
to one version: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to share camels and cattle,
each seven men sharing one animal. According to another version:
So a cow would be sacrificed on behalf of seven men and we
would share it. (Reported by Muslim)
Ruling of Udhiyah
Udhiyah is one
of the rituals of Islam. It is mentioned in Jawaahir al-Ikleel Sharh
Mukhtasar Khaleel that if the people of a city or country neglect
udhiyah, they should be fought, because it is one of the rituals
of Islam. (Rasaail Fiqhiyyah by Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen,
p. 46). There are two scholarly opinions on udhiyah:
(A) that it
is waajib (obligatory)
This is the
opinion of al-Oozaai, al-Layth and Abu Haneefah, and it is
one of the two opinions narrated from Imaam Ahmad. It was also the
opinion of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, and is one of the two opinions
in the madhhab of Maalik, or is what seems to be the madhhab of
Maalik. Those who favour this opinion take the following as evidence:
1. The aayah:
Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord anf sacrifice (to Him
only). [al-Kawthar 108:2]. This is a command, and a command
implies that something is obligatory.
2. The hadeeth
of Jundub (may Allaah be pleased with him), reported in al-Saheehayn
and elsewhere, who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever slaughtered
his sacrifice before he prays, let him slaughter another one in
its place, and whoever did not slaughter a sacrifice, let him do
so in the name of Allaah. (Reported by Muslim, 3621)
3. The hadeeth:
Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so,
let him not approach our place or prayer. (Reported by Ahmad
and Ibn Maajah; classed as saheeh by al-Haakim from the hadeeth
of Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him). It says in Fath
al-Baari that its men are thiqaat).
(B) that it
is a confirmed Sunnah (sunnah muakkadah)
This is the
opinion of the majority, and it is the madhhab of al-Shaafa'i and
the better-known opinion of Maalik and Ahmad. But most of those
who favour this opinion stated that it is makrooh (disliked) for
the one who is able to offer a sacrifice to neglect to do so. They
base their opinion on the following:
1. The hadeeth
of Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) in Sunan Abi Dawood,
where he said: I prayed on Eid al-Adhaa with the Messenger
of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when
he finished (the prayer), he was brought two rams, and he sacrificed
them. He said, In the Name of Allaah, Allaah is Most Great.
This is on behalf of myself and any member of my ummah who did not
offer a sacrifice. (Sunan Abi Dawood bi Sharh Muhammad Shams
al-Haq Abaadi, 7/486)
2. The hadeeth
reported by all the famous muhadditheen apart from al-Bukhaari:
Whoever among you wants to offer a sacrifice, let him not
take anything from his hair or nails. Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen,
may Allaah preserve him, said, following his discussion of those
who say it is obligatory and those who say it is Sunnah, Each
point of view has its evidence, but to be on the safe side, the
one who is able to offer a sacrifice should not neglect to do so,
because of what is involved in this act of reverence towards Allaah,
remembering Him, and making sure that one has nothing to be blamed
1. The animal
should have reached the required age, which is six months for a
lamb, one year for a goat, two years for a cow and five years for
2. It should
be free of any faults, because the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) said: There are four that will not
do for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick
animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose limp is obvious
and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones .
(Saheeh, Saheeh al-Jaami, no. 886). There are milder defects
that do not disqualify an animal, but it is makrooh to sacrifice
such animals, such as an animal with a horn or ear missing, or an
animal with slits in its ears, etc. Udhiyah is an act of worship
to Allaah, and Allaah is Good and accepts only that which is good.
Whoever honours the rites of Allaah, this has to do with the piety
(taqwa) of the heart.
3. It is forbidden
to sell it. If an animal has been selected for sacrifice, it is
not permissible to sell it or give it away, except in exchange for
one that is better. If an animal gives birth, its offspring should
be sacrificed along with it. It is also permissible to ride it if
necessary. The evidence for this is the report narrated by al-Bukhaari
and Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who
said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) saw a man leading his camel and told him, Ride
it. He said, It is for sacrifice. He said, Ride
it a second or third time.
4. It should
be sacrificed at the specified time, which is from after the prayer
and khutbah of Eid not from when the time for the prayer
and khutbah starts until before sunset on the last of the
days of Tashreeq, which is the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah. The
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever
sacrifices before the prayer, let him repeat it. (Reported
by al-Bukhaari and Muslim). Ali (may Allaah be pleased with
him) said: The days of Nahr (Sacrifice) are the day of al-Adhaa
and the three days following it. This is also the opinion
of al-Hasan al-Basri, Ata ibn Abi Rabaah, al-Oozaai,
al-Shaafa'i and Ibn al-Mundhir, may Allaah have mercy on them all.
be done with the sacrifice?
1. It is mustahabb
(liked, preferable) for the one who has made a sacrifice to not
eat anything on that day before he eats from it, if this is possible,
because of the hadeeth, Let every man eat from his sacrifice.
(Classed as saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami, 5349). This eating
should be after the Eid prayer and khutbah. This is the opinion
of the scholars, including Ali, Ibn Abbaas, Maalik,
al-Shaafa'i and others. The evidence for this is the hadeeth of
Buraydah (may Allaah be pleased with him): The Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not go out on the day
of Fitr until he had eaten, and he would not eat on the day of Adhaa
until he had slaughtered (his sacrifice). (Al-Albaani said:
its isnaad is saheeh. Al-Mishkaat, 1/452).
2. It is better
for a person to slaughter the sacrifice himself, but if he does
not, it is mustahabb for him to be present when it is slaughtered.
3. It is mustahaab
to divide the meat into three: one third to be eaten, one third
to be given as gifts and one third to be given in charity. This
was the opinion of Ibn Masood and Ibn Umar (may Allaah
be pleased with them). The scholars agreed that it is not permissible
to sell anything from its meat, fat or skin. In a saheeh hadeeth,
the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever
sells the skin of his udhiyah, there is no udhiyah for him (i.e.,
it is not counted as udhiyah). (Classed as hasan in Saheeh
al-Jaami, 6118). The butcher should not be given anything
of it by way of reward or payment, because Ali (may Allaah
be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded me to take care of
the sacrifice and to give its meat, skin and raiment ( covering
used for protection ) in charity, and not to give anything of it
to the butcher as a compensation . He said, We will give him
something from what we have. (Agreed upon). It was said
that it is permissible to give the butcher something as a gift,
and that it is permissible to give some of it to a kaafir if he
is poor or a relative or a neighbour, or in order to open his heart
to Islam. (Fataawa al-Shaykh Abd al-Azeez ibn Baaz).
should the Muslim avoid in the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah
if he wants to offer a sacrifice?
The Sunnah indicates
that the one who wants to offer a sacrifice must refrain from taking
anything from his hair, nails or skin from the first day of Dhul-Hijjah
until he offers his sacrifice, because the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) said: When you see the new moon of
Dhul-Hijjah, if any one of you wants to offer a sacrifice,
let him not remove anything from his hair or nails until he has
offered his sacrifice. According to another report: Let
him not touch any part of his hair or nails. (Reported by
Muslim with four isnaads, 13/146). This command implies obligation
and the prohibition implies that it is forbidden, according to the
most correct opinion, because these are absolutes with no exceptions.
If a person deliberately takes something (from his hair or nails),
he must seek the forgiveness of Allaah, but he does not have to
pay any fidyah (penalty), and his udhiyah is still valid. Whoever
needs to remove some of his hair or nails because leaving it will
cause him harm, such as a torn nail or a wound in a site covered
by hair, should remove it, and there is no sin on him if he does
so. This is not more serious than the muhrim (person in ihraam for
Hajj or Umrah) who is allowed to shave if not doing so will
cause him harm. There is nothing wrong with men and women washing
their hair during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, because
the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) only forbade
removing hair, and because the muhrim is allowed to wash his head.
The wisdom behind
the prohibition on removing hair and nails is because the one who
is going to offer a sacrifice is like the one who is in ihraam for
Hajj and Umrah with regard to some rituals, which is the offering
of a sacrifice in order to draw closer to Allaah. Thus some of the
rulings of ihraam apply to the one who wants to offer a sacrifice,
so he should not touch his hair and nails until he has slaughtered
his sacrifice, in the hope that Allaah will release him from the
fire of Hell. And Allaah knows best.
If a person
removes some of his hair and nails during the first ten days of
Dhul-Hijjah because he is not planning to offer a sacrifice,
then he decides to sacrifice, he should refrain from cutting his
hair or nails from the moment he takes the decision.
There are some
women who delegate their brothers or sons to do the sacrifice on
their behalf so that they can cut their hair during the first ten
days of Dhul-Hijjah. This is not correct, because the ruling
applies to the one who is making the sacrifice, whether he or she
delegates someone else to do the actual slaughter or not. The prohibition
does not apply to the person appointed, it applies to the person
who wants to offer a sacrifice on behalf of himself, as is indicated
by the hadeeth. As for the person who is doing the sacrifice on
behalf of another, whether because of a will or because he has been
delegated to do so, the prohibition does not apply to him.
It is apparent
that this prohibition applies to the one who is offering the sacrifice,
and does not extend to his wife or children, unless one of them
is offering a sacrifice on his or her own behalf. The Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to sacrifice on behalf
of the family of Muhammad, and it was not reported that he forbade
them to remove anything of their hair or nails.
Whoever is planning
to offer a sacrifice, then decides to go for Hajj, should not remove
anything of his hair or nails when he wants to enter ihraam, because
this is Sunnah only when there is a need for it. But if he is doing
Hajj tamattu [where one performs Umrah,
then ends ihraam and enters a new state of ihraam for Hajj], he
should shorten his hair when he finishes Umrah because that
is part of the ritual.
The things that
are forbidden for the person who wants to offer a sacrifice are
reported in the hadeeth quoted above. It is not forbidden for him
to wear perfume or to have intercourse with his wife or to wear
sewn garments and so on . And Allah knows best.