These are numerous but we will see the following examples.
1 - The prophecy about the victory of the Romans:
The Almighty Allah, subhanahu wa ta`ala, says:
"The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land [Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine], and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. Within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before and after [these events] is only Allah's [before the defeat of the Romans by the Persians, and after the defeat of the Persians by the Romans]..." [Qur'an, 30:2-4]
Seven years later this prophecy became true, and the Romans defeated the Persians.
2 - Prophecy that both al Waleed ibn al Mugheerah and Abu Lahab would die as disbelievers
The Almighty Allah, subhanahu wa ta`ala, says about al Waleed:
"Leave Me alone [to deal] with whom I created lonely [without any wealth or children, i.e. Al Walid ibn Al Mughirah al Makhzumi]. And then granted him resources in abundance. And children to be by his side. And made life smooth and comfortable for him. After all that he desires that I should give more; Nay! Verily, he has been opposing Our Ayat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations]. I shall oblige him to [climb a slippery mountain in the Hell-fire called As-Sa`ud, or] face a severe torment! Verily, he thought and plotted. So let him be cursed: how he plotted! And once more let him be cursed: how he plotted! Then he thought. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way; then he turned back, and was proud. Then he said: "This is nothing but magic from that of old. This is nothing but the word of a human being!" I will cast him into Hell-fire. And what will make you know [exactly] what Hell-fire is? It spares not [any sinner], nor does it leave [anything unburned]!" [Qur'an 74:11-18]
And about Abu Lahab, He, subhanahu wa ta`ala, says:
"Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab [an uncle of the Prophet] and perish he! His wealth and his children will not benefit him! He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames!" [Qur'an, 111:1-3]
3 - His prophecy of coming back to Makkah which he left for Madinah. The Almighty Allah, `azza wa jall, says:
"Verily, He Who has given you [O Muhammad] the Qur'an [i.e. ordered you to act on its laws and to preach it to others] will surely bring you back to Ma`ad [place of return, either to Makkah or to Paradise after your death]..." [Qur'an 28:85]
And the Prophet, sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam returned to Makkah in the year of the conquest.
4 - The prophecy telling that the Prophet, sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam, and the Muslims would enter Makkah in security:
"...Certainly, you shall enter Al Masjid al Haram, if Allah wills, secure, [some] having your heads shaved, and [some] having your head hair cut short, having no fear..." [Qur'an, 48:27]
This prophecy became true and the Muslims conquered Makkah and entered al Masjid al Haram in complete security.
5 - The Prophecy about granting the Muslims succession and authority.
The Almighty Allah says:
"Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to [the present rulers] in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion which He has chosen for them [i.e. Islam]. And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear [provided] they [believers] worship Me and do not associate anything [in worship] with Me." [Qur'an, 24:55]
The Almighty Allah, subhanahu wa ta`ala, has fulfilled His promise to the Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam and his nation. He made them successors of great kings and powerful rulers, whose lands and properties were inherited by the Muslims.